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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Except for use in a review, no portion of this book may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of the publisher.

Neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for the use or misuse of information contained in this book.

Visit our Web site at buggefs. In the Lab Chapter 1: Getting the Message Out: Headphones 63 Chapter 7: Stability hible High-Gain Circuits 71 Chapter 9: The Shotgun Chapter Pinhole Mies Chapter Ultrasonics Chapter Carrier Current Chapter Hardwire Chapter Repeaters Chapter Advanced Microphone Techniques Chapter In the Field Chapter Can You Bug This Microphone?

Muzak’ in the Air Chapter The Living Desert Chapter Divorce Chapter Can You Bug Pebble Beach? Hardware a la Carte Chapter Shifty Counter bugman Chapter Bookie Chapter Can You Bug this Mime? Play by the Rules 26l Chapter Grim sequelae are many and include federal prosecution and time in the joint, along with horrendous legal bills and loss of greens privileges at Winged Foot.

The scope of the term embraces pretty much any form of unauthorized eavesdropping; and, yes, this book profiles wiretapping of the most sordid sort. It also makes the buggegs here to distinguish between bugging and reading about bugging.

The buggerrs presents technical background as nonfiction that holds as close to the original tools as I can get without spilling trade secrets. In many cases I have updated devices because the original parts are no longer sold. The reader should understand that anyone who duplicates or attempts to duplicate these devices, or merely buys parts to build them, might be inviting strange repercussions.

Episodes purporting to describe field use of tools invoke a fictive format whose full aspect is a product of my imagination. This mixed presentation brings bugging basemenf life in a way that bugyers beyond the reach of strict nonfiction, besides being the only way to make the point without soiling my own digs. Irrespective of whether the capers occurred, sufficient time has elapsed for the bggers statutes of limitation to absolve all who might have participated.

No account describes events more recent than All hardware shown in photographs has been destroyed. Neither the publisher nor I guarantee anything about this book, including the accuracy or safety of its information, the suitability of that information to a basemeny purpose, or the legality of bjble episodes recounted, whether stated or implicit in the text or inferred by the reader.


The publisher and I specifically disclaim any and all liability and responsibility to any person or entity for damage or loss caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly, by the use, misuse, negligent use, or inability to use information contained in this book.

In fact, few can name the traits of proper bugging tools or tell the real thing from fluff, boble state un- surprising and probably inevitable in an air of incessant hype: A pro views the game as a gestalt, not a galaxy of gadgets.

Constant practice gives him a gut-level grasp of the principles involved. They convey readily because they flow from crude physics and common sense. Studio recordings happen in dead quiet, at an unhasty pace. Hardware depreciates over decades; the number of retakes is infinite. But bugging — eavesdropping, snooping, spying, wiretapping — seeks only to intercept speech, usually of parties who prefer not to be heard, often in settings hostile to the task.

The agent must go where the action is and surmount a wall of noise.

Not on the menu. The task defines its buggerss, explaining why the student cannot tap mixing-board lore for guidance. The spectrum of human hearing stretches from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, but the spectrum of human speech tops out at 7 KHz, with most energy focused between and 6, Hz.

Information in speech resides in two types of sounds. The first is known as a formant, the bugges made by tightened vocal cords vibrating in a stream of air — the vowel sounds aaaah, eeeeh, and so basmeent. If cord vibration frequency is viewed as a carrier, speech contains amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The second distinctive component is called unvoiced energy. It originates with air traversing the throat without vibrating the cords, then through the mouth and lips.

It includes explosive venting, as the k in kick or the p in pop. Unvoiced energy conveys so much information that it remains fully intelligible as whispering. The curve banishes bass tones to allow high gain in the presence of low- frequency ambient noise and accents the spectra of unvoiced energy. Bkble extends from just above Hz to about 6 KHz. The low end rolls off more sharply than the top end.

The Basement Bugger’s Bible : Shifty Bugman :

Go where the money is. With this clear objective in mind, covert audio lays itself out in a chain that begins with a microphone. To pick the right mic for the job, the agent must know the traits of them all. Plates in proximity can hold a charge, hence the name condenser mic. The type explains itself through three equations: C is capacitance in picofarads K is dielectic constant of the medium between the plates A is area of one plate in square inches d is distance between plates in inches Rearranging and solving for distance: Mic sensitivity is a function of applied plate voltage, distance between plates, their area, and other factors, such as compliance of the diaphragm.


Raw signal at the plates is not usable due to its extremely High impedance. In a complete microphone, one plate ties to the gate of a field-effect transistor FET.

Diaphragmatic movement causes a drain current to flow through a DC-biased external resistor. Thus, condenser mics are not primary generators. Studio condenser mics charge the plates through an external bus. The industry standard is 48V. This obviates external plate bias.

All 4 The Unified-Field Theory hobby-grade condenser mics use an electret and are often called, simply, electrets.

The Basement Buggers Bible

Electrets have dominated bugging since Blade Banner. Hasement draw a fraction of a milliamp. DC bias present at their outputs requires capacitor coupling into most circuits.

Lately, the Panasonic line upped this claim by 20 dB. Here bug equalization CEQ comes into its ow n, for it ignores bass coming basemetn the mic. Cheap electrets are readily hacked in that the user can manipulate supply voltage and drain resistance. Package directions specify IK for the Radio Shack electret mic.

They do not point out bkble raising the bias resistance to 10K and keeping bias voltage between 6V and 10V will boost mic output by more than 12 dB. These matters are detailed in a later section. Studio condenser mics have low impedances, because they couple raw mic output to a step-down transformer.

They can afford the voltage loss because studio cap- sules typically measure an inch across, giving them many times the area, and, by the con- denser equations, many basemejt the output of a tiny electret. The occasional electret suffers low output or high noise or both. Professionals usually audition a mic before soldering it to that once- in-a-lifetime contract bug.

Piezoelectric Mics Piezoelectricity means voltage generated in a material by the application of force, and vice versa. Quartz, Rochelle salt, barium titanate, and other substances share the property. Every click lighter uses piezo ignition. Piezo mics exist as crystal and ceramic types that ruled the hobby scene prior to the emergence of cheap electrets. The design sandwiches a piezo wafer between metal electrodes, then links the sandwich to an aluminum foil diaphragm.

That assembly is housed in a cuplike metal case. Ceramic mics are not polarized in the sense of an electret, but the negative case lead should always tie to ground to minimize hum.

The fact that the output terminals do not present a DC path means they can couple directly to most amplifier inputs. Only high-output types, bugers or better, still belong in surveillance. High impedance figures often quoted for the type — 7K to 25K ohms — should be taken with a 5 The Basement Bugger’s Bible grain of salt.

The impedance varies with frequency, falling as frequency rises.