Canine distemper is a contagious and serious disease caused by a virus that with the Canine Distemper brochure, also available in Spanish (Moquillo). Many translated example sentences containing “canine distemper” – Spanish- English comunidad, entre ellas, moquillo canino, parvovirus, panleucopenia [ ]. Definition / notes: El distemper canino es una enfermedad altamente contagiosacausada por un virus que afecta los aparatos respiratorio, gastrointestinal, y a.
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Canine distemper sometimes termed hardpad distekper is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.
Animals in the family Felidaeincluding many species of large cat as well as domestic cats, were long believed to be resistant to canine distemper, until some researchers reported the prevalence of CDV infection in large felids. The viral infection can be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can present eventual serious neurological symptoms.
Canine distemper is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae the same family of the viruses that causes measlesmumps canio, and bronchiolitis in humans.
The disease is highly contagious via inhalation. In domestic dogs, while the acute generalized form of distemper has a high mortality rate, disease duration and severity depends dixtemper on the animal’s age and immune status and virulence of the infecting strain of the virus. The origin of the word “distemper” is from the Middle English distemperenmeaning to upset the balance of the humors, which is from the Old French destemprermeaning to disturb, which is from the Vulgar Latin distemperare: Latin dis- and Latin temperaremeaning to not mix properly.
In dogs, signs of distemper vary widely from no signs, to mild respiratory signs indistinguishable from kennel coughto severe pneumonia with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and death. If neurological signs develop, incontinence may ensue.
As the condition progresses, the seizures worsen and advance to grand mal convulsions followed by death of the animal. The animal may also show signs of sensitivity to light, incoordination, circling, increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli such as pain or touch, and deterioration of motor capabilities.
Less commonly, they may lead to blindness and paralysis. The length of the systemic disease may be as short as 10 days, or the start of neurological signs may not occur until several weeks or months later.
Those few that survive usually have a small tic or twitch of varying levels of severity. With time, this tic usually diminishes somewhat in its severity. A dog that survives distemper continues to have both nonlife-threatening and life-threatening signs throughout its lifespan.
The most prevalent nonlife-threatening symptom is hard pad disease. This occurs when a dog experiences the thickening of the skin on the pads of its paws, as well as on the end of its nose. Another lasting symptom that is common is enamel hypoplasia. Puppies, especially, have damage to the enamel of teeth that are not completely formed or those that have not yet grown through the gums.
This is a result of the virus killing the cells responsible for manufacturing the tooth enamel.
These affected teeth tend to erode quickly. Life-threatening signs usually include those due to the degeneration of the nervous system. Dogs that have been infected with distemper tend to suffer a progressive deterioration of mental abilities and motor skills. With time, the dog can develop more severe seizures, paralysis, reduction in sight, and incoordination.
These dogs are usually humanely euthanized because of the immense pain and suffering they moquill. Distemper is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridaewhich is a close relative of the viruses that cause measles in humans and rinderpest in animals.
Distemper, or hardpad disease in canines,  affects animals in the ,oquillo Canidae dog, fox, wolf, Raccoon dogMustelidae ferret, mink, skunk, wolverine, marten, caniino, otter  Procyonidae raccoon, coatiAiluridae red pandaUrsidae bearElephantidae Asian elephantand some primates e. All but one infected panda died; the survivor had previously been vaccinated. Canine distemper virus affects nearly all body systems.
It can also be spread by food and moquilloo contaminated with these fluids. Canine distemper virus tends to orient its infection towards the lymphoidepithelialand nervous tissues. The virus initially replicates in the lymphatic tissue of the respiratory tract.
The virus then enters the blood stream and infects the respiratorygastrointestinalurogenitalepithelial, and central nervous systemsand optic nerves. The virus first appears in bronchial lymph nodes and tonsils 2 days after exposure. The virus then enters the bloodstream on the second or third day. These signs may or may distempfr be accompanied by anorexiaa runny nose, and discharge from the eye.
This first round of fever typically recedes rapidly within 96 hours, and then a second round of fever begins around distemped 11th or 12th day and lasts at least a week.
Gastrointestinal and respiratory problems tend to follow, which may become complicated with secondary bacterial infections. Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, otherwise known as encephalomyelitiseither canno associated with this, subsequently follows, or comes completely independent of these problems.
A thickening of the footpads sometimes develops, and vesicular pustular lesions on the abdomen usually develop. Neurological signs typically are found in the animals with thickened footpads from the virus.
The above signs, especially fever, respiratory signs, neurological signs, and thickened footpads, occurring in unvaccinated dogs strongly indicate canine distemper. However, several febrile diseases match distdmper of the signs of the disease and only recently has distinguishing between canine hepatitis moqujllo, herpes virus, parainfluenzaand leptospirosis been possible.
In older dogs that develop distemper encephalomyelitis, diagnosis may be more difficult, since many of these dogs have an adequate vaccination history. An additional test to confirm distemper is a brush border slide of the bladder cabino epithelium of the inside lining from the bladder, stained with Diff-Quik.
These infected cells have inclusions which stain a carmine red color, found in the paranuclear cytoplasm readability. A number of vaccines against canine distemper exist for dogs ATCvet code: Infected animals should be quarantined from other dogs for several months owing to the length of time the animal may shed the virus. Despite extensive vaccination in many regions, it remains a major disease of dogs. Without the full series of shots, the vaccination does not provide protection against the virus.
Since puppies are typically sold at the age of weeks, they typically receive the first shot while still with their breeder, but distempef new owner often does not finish the series. These dogs are not protected against the virus, so are susceptible to canine distemper infection, continuing the downward spiral that leads to outbreaks throughout the world.
No specific treatment for the canine distemper is known.
As with measles, the treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Examples include administering fluids, electrolyte solutions, analgesics, anticonvulsants, broad-spectrum antibiotics, antipyretics, parenteral nutrition, and nursing care.
The mortality rate of the virus largely depends on the immune status of the infected dogs. Puppies experience the highest mortality rate, where complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis are more common.
The prevalence of canine distemper in the community has decreased dramatically due to the availability of vaccinations. However, the disease continues to spread among unvaccinated populations, such as those in animal shelters and pet stores.
This provides a great threat to both the rural and urban communities throughout the United States, affecting both shelter and domestic canines. Despite the effectiveness of the vaccination, outbreaks of this disease continue to occur nationally. Outbreaks of canine distemper continue to occur throughout the United States and elsewhere, and are caused by many factors, including proximity to wild animals and lack of vaccinated animals.
This problem is even greater within areas such as Arizona, owing to the vast amount of rural land. An unaccountable number of strays that lack vaccinations reside in these areas, so are more susceptible to diseases such as canine distemper. These strays act as a reservoir for the virus, spreading it throughout the surrounding area, including urban areas.
Puppies and dogs that have not received their shots can then be infected in a place where many dogs interact, such as a dog park. In Europe, the first report of canine distemper occurred in Spain in Dunkin confirmed that the disease was, in fact, caused by a virus.
The first vaccine against canine distemper was developed by an Italian named Puntoni. The domestic dog has largely been responsible for introducing canine distemper to previously unexposed wildlife, and now causes a serious conservation threat to many species of carnivores and some species of marsupials.
The virus contributed to the near-extinction of the black-footed ferret. It also may have played a considerable role in the extinction of the thylacine Tasmanian tiger and recurrently causes mortality among African wild dogs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about a disease generally affecting animals in the order Carnivora. For other diseases known as “distemper”, see Distemper. Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 30 September In Greene, Craig E. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 3rd ed.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on Oxford Living Dictionaries – English. Archived from the original on Infectious diseases of the dog and cat 4th ed. Canine Distemper, see “Archived copy”. Archived copy as title linkaccessed 15 December What You Need To Know”.
Greene, Ian Tizard, et al. Dog Disorders and Diseases: Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 9 May A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases. Kind Hearts in Action. Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved October 31, Advances in veterinary medicine.