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Born to an aristocratic Russian family in he is best known for the novels War live Peace and Anna Karenina often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction. Tolstoy’s fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan IlyichFamily Happinessand Hadji Murad He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays. In the s Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mountcaused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist.
The Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian lisv who traced their ancestry to a mythical nobleman named Indris described by Pyotr Tolstoy as arriving “from Nemec, from the lands of Caesar ” to Chernigov in along with his two sons Litvinos or Litvonis and Zimonten or Zigmont and a druzhina of people.
Because of the pagan names and the fact that Chernigov at the time was ruled by Demetrius I Starshy some researches concluded that they were Lithuanians who arrived from the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniathen part of the State of the Teutonic Order. Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyanaa family estate 12 kilometres 7. After his parents died during his childhood,  Lifv and his siblings were brought up by relatives. His time there was not a success however, with teachers describing him as “both unable and unwilling to tolztoi.
Tolstoy served as a young artillery officer during the Crimean War and was in Sevastopol during the month-long siege of Sevastopol in —55,  including the Battle of the Chernaya. During the war he was recognised for his bravery and courage and promoted to lieutenant. His conversion from a dissolute and privileged society author to the non-violent and spiritual anarchist of his latter days was tokstoi about by his experience in the army as well as two toltsoi around Europe in and — During his visit, Tolstoy witnessed a public execution in Paris, a traumatic experience that would mark the rest of his life.
Writing in a letter to his friend Vasily Botkin: Henceforth, I shall never serve any government anywhere. The similar evocation of battle scenes in Hugo’s novel and Tolstoy’s War and Peace indicates this influence. Tolstoy’s political philosophy was also influenced by a March visit to French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhonthen living in exile under an assumed name in Brussels.
Apart from reviewing Proudhon’s forthcoming publication, La Guerre et luev Paix War and Peace in Frenchwhose title Tolstoy would borrow for his masterpiece, the two men discussed education, as Tolstoy wrote in his educational notebooks: Fired by enthusiasm, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana and founded 13 schools for the children of Russia’s peasants, who had just been emancipated from serfdom in Tolstoy described the school’s principles in his essay “The School at Yasnaya Polyana”.
However, as a direct forerunner to A. Neill ‘s Summerhill Schoolthe school at Yasnaya Polyana  can justifiably be claimed the first example of a coherent theory of democratic education. The death of his brother Nikolay in had an impact on Tolstoy, and led him to a desire to marry. She was called Sonya, the Russian diminutive of Sofia, by her family and friends. The marriage was marked from the outset by sexual passion and emotional insensitivity when Tolstoy, on the eve of their tklstoi, gave her his diaries detailing his extensive sexual past and the fact that one of the serfs on his estate had borne him a son.
Sonya was copying and handwriting his epic works time after time. Tolstoy would continue editing War and Peace and had to have clean final drafts to be delivered to the publisher. However, their later life together has been described by A. Wilson as one of the unhappiest in literary history. Tolstoy’s relationship with his wife deteriorated as his beliefs became increasingly radical. This saw him seeking to reject his inherited and earned wealth, including the renunciation of the copyrights on his earlier works.
Some of the members of the Tolstoy family left Russia in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution and the subsequent establishment of the Soviet Unionand many of Leo Tolstoy’s relatives and descendants today live in SwedenGermanythe United KingdomFrance and the United States.
Among them are Swedish jazz singer Viktoria Tolstoy and the Swedish landowner Christopher Paus, whose family owns the major estate Herresta outside Stockholm. One of his great-great-grandsons, Vladimir Tolstoy bornis a director of the Yasnaya Polyana museum since and an adviser to the President of Oiev on cultural affairs since Tolstoy’s earliest works, the autobiographical novels ChildhoodBoyhoodand Youth —tell of a rich landowner’s son and his slow realization of the chasm between himself and his peasants.
Though he later rejected them as sentimental, a great deal of Tolstoy’s own life is revealed.
They retain their relevance as accounts of the universal story of growing up. Tolstoy served as a second lieutenant in an artillery regiment during the Crimean Warrecounted in his Sevastopol Sketches. His experiences in battle helped stir his subsequent pacifism and gave him material for realistic depiction of the horrors of war in his later work.
His fiction consistently attempts to convey realistically the Russian society in which he lived. Anna Karenina tells parallel stories of an adulterous woman trapped by the conventions and falsities of society and of a philosophical landowner much like Tolstoywho works alongside the peasants in the fields and seeks to reform their lives.
Tolstoy not only drew from his own life experiences but also created characters in his own image, such as Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Golstoi in War and PeaceLevin in Anna Karenina and to some extent, Prince Nekhlyudov in Resurrection. War and Peace is generally thought to be one of the greatest tolsgoi ever written, remarkable for its dramatic breadth and unity.
Its vast canvas includes characters, many historical with others fictional. The story moves from family life to the headquarters of Napoleonfrom the court of Alexander I of Russia to the battlefields of Austerlitz and Borodino.
Tolstoy’s original idea for the novel was to investigate the causes of the Decembrist revoltto which it refers only in the last chapters, from which can be deduced that Andrei Bolkonsky ‘s son will ljev one of the Decembrists. The novel explores Tolstoy’s theory of history, and in particular the insignificance of individuals such as Napoleon and Alexander. Somewhat surprisingly, Tolstoy did not consider War and Peace to be a novel nor did he consider many of the great Russian fictions written at that time to be novels.
This view becomes less surprising if one considers that Tolstoy was a novelist of the realist school who considered the novel to be a framework for the examination of social and political issues in nineteenth-century life.
Tolstoy thought that Anna Karenina was his first true novel. In his novel ResurrectionTolstoy attempts to expose the injustice of man-made laws and the hypocrisy of institutionalized church. Tolstoy also explores tllstoi explains the economic philosophy of Georgismof which he had become a very strong advocate towards the end of his life. Tolstoy also tried himself in poetry with several soldier songs written during his military service and fairy tales in verse such as Volga-bogatyr and Oaf stylized as national folk songs.
They were written between and for his Russian Book for Readinga collection of short stories in four volumes total of stories in various genres published along with the New Azbuka textbook and addressed to schoolchildren. Nevertheless, he was skeptical about poetry as a genre.
As he famously said, “Writing poetry is like ploughing and dancing at the same time”. According to Valentin Bulgakovhe criticised poets, including Alexander Pushkinfor their “false” epithets used “simply to make it rhyme”. Tolstoy’s contemporaries paid him lofty tributes. Fyodor Dostoyevskywho died tolstoii years before Tolstoy’s death, thought him the greatest of all living novelists.
Gustave Flauberton reading a translation of War and Peaceexclaimed, “What an artist and what a psychologist! What he does serves to justify all the hopes and aspirations invested in literature.
Later novelists continued to appreciate Tolstoy’s art, but sometimes also expressed criticism. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote “I am attracted by his earnestness and by his power of detail, but I am repelled by his looseness of construction and by his unreasonable and impracticable mysticism. After reading Schopenhauer ‘s The World as Will and RepresentationTolstoy gradually became converted to the ascetic morality upheld in that work as the proper spiritual path for the upper classes: Constant raptures over Schopenhauer and a whole series of spiritual delights which I’ve never experienced before.
It explained how the nothingness that results from complete denial of self is only a relative nothingness, and is not to be feared. The novelist was struck by the description of Christian, Buddhistand Hindu ascetic renunciation as being the path to holiness. After reading passages such as the following, which abound in Schopenhauer’s ethical chapters, the Russian nobleman chose poverty and formal denial of the will:.
But this very necessity of involuntary suffering by poor people for eternal salvation is also expressed by that utterance of the Savior Matthew Thus Buddha Sakyamuni was born a prince, but voluntarily took to the mendicant’s staff; and Francis of Assisithe founder of the mendicant orders who, as a youngster at a ball, where the daughters of all the notabilities were sitting together, was asked: InTolstoy wrote a book called What I Believein which he openly confessed his Christian beliefs.
He affirmed his belief in Jesus Christ ‘s teachings and was particularly influenced by the Sermon on the Mountand the injunction to turn the other cheekwhich he understood as a “commandment of non-resistance to evil by force” and a doctrine of pacifism and nonviolence.
In his work The Kingdom of God Is Within Youhe explains that he considered mistaken the Church’s doctrine because they had made a “perversion” of Christ’s teachings. Tolstoy believed being a Christian required him to be a pacifist; the consequences of being a pacifist, and the apparently inevitable waging of war by government, are the reason why he is considered a philosophical anarchist.
Later, various versions of “Tolstoy’s Bible” would be published, indicating the passages Tolstoy most relied on, specifically, the reported words of Jesus himself.
Tolstoy believed that a true Christian could find lasting happiness by striving for inner self-perfection through following the Great Commandment of loving one’s neighbor and God rather than looking outward to the Church or state for guidance.
His belief in nonresistance when faced by conflict is another distinct attribute of his philosophy based on Christ’s teachings. By directly influencing Mahatma Gandhi with this idea through his work The Kingdom of God Is Within You full text of English translation available on WikisourceTolstoy’s profound influence on the nonviolent resistance movement reverberates to this day.
He believed that the aristocracy were a burden on the poor, and that the only solution to how we live together is through anarchism. He also opposed private property in land ownership  and the institution of marriage and valued the ideals of chastity and sexual abstinence discussed in Father Sergius and his preface to The Kreutzer Sonataideals also held by the young Gandhi.
Tolstoy’s later work derives a passion and verve from the depth of his austere moral views. Gorky relates how Tolstoy once read this passage before himself and Chekhov and that Tolstoy was moved to tears by the end of the reading.
Other later passages of rare power include the personal crises that were faced by the protagonists of The Death of Ivan Ilyichand of Master and Manwhere the main character in the former or the reader in the latter are made aware of the foolishness of the protagonists’ lives.
Tolstoy had a profound influence on the development of Christian anarchist thought. Without naming himself an anarchist, Leo Tolstoy, like his predecessors in the popular religious movements of the 15th and 16th centuries, ChojeckiDenk and many others, took the anarchist position as regards the state and property rightsdeducing his conclusions from the general spirit of the teachings of Jesus and from the necessary dictates of reason.
With all the might of his talent, Tolstoy made especially in The Kingdom of God Is Within You a powerful criticism of the church, the state and law altogether, and especially of the present property laws. He describes the state as the domination of the wicked ones, supported by brutal force.
Robbers, he says, are far less dangerous than a well-organized government. He makes a searching criticism of the prejudices which are current now concerning the benefits conferred upon men by the church, the state, and the existing distribution of property, and from the teachings of Jesus he deduces the rule of non-resistance and the absolute condemnation of all wars.
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His religious arguments are, however, so well combined with arguments borrowed from a dispassionate observation of the present evils, that the anarchist portions of lirv works appeal to the religious and the non-religious reader alike.
He was harshly critical of the atrocities committed by the Russians, Germans, Americans, Japanese, and other western troops. He accused them of engaging in slaughter when he heard about the lootings, rapes, and murders, in what he saw as Christian brutality. The attack on China in the Boxer Rebellion was railed against by Tolstoy. To the Chinese peoplean epistle, was written by Tolstoy as part of the criticism of the war by intellectuals in Russia. Chinese Wisdom was a text written by Tolstoy.
The Boxer Rebellion stirred Tolstoy’s interest in Chinese philosophy. In hundreds of essays over the last 20 years of his life, Tolstoy reiterated the anarchist critique of the state and recommended books by Kropotkin and Proudhon to his readers, whilst rejecting anarchism’s espousal of violent revolutionary means. In the lie, “On Anarchy”, he wrote; “The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions.